Presidential Statements

Co-Building an Eco-Social World: Leaving No One Behind, Organizing a Robust and Protected Transborder and Transnational Civil Society

Keynote Speech delivered on June 30 at the Global People’s Summit on Co-Building and Eco-Social World held online from June 29 to July 2, 2022

by Liberato C. Bautista, CoNGO President

Introductory Remarks

1. Thank you Priska for that introduction. Thanks to you and your organization—the international Federation of Social Workers which is a member of CoNGO—the Conference of Non-Governmental Organizations in Consultative Relationship with the United Nations was invited as a partner of this important global undertaking—a people’s global summit “to share…solutions to our joint challenges, so all people can
live with confidence, security, and peace in a sustainable world.”

2. The draft People’s Charter that will come out of this global summit characterizes a world that is imperiled by many challenges. The charter partly says, and I quote, “We recognise that the pledges made by governments after the second world war – on peace, development and human rights – have not yet been realized and in instances rights have been eroded. Inequalities and fractures have grown. Poverty sits alongside extreme wealth. Nature has been degraded, leading to climate warming and environmental destruction. Millions of people have been displaced as a result, adding to the millions more displaced by conflict and violence. The governments that made these commitments have prioritized competition over collaboration, sovereignty over solidarity. They have not yet served the people they represent.”

3. “They have not served the people they represent.” That’s a bold statement to say. It is a statement that also burdens this Summit which must identify as close and inclusive a global picture as possible, to the issues that keep people worried all day and awake all night. The draft Charter identified what it called “interconnected diverse values as a basis for forming a holistic, inclusive framework for our everyday relationships and actions.” The Charter enumerated the values as “reference points for the development of our shared futures.” I like this formulation—that values, while named and identified, cannot be exhausted in an effort as global as a people’s summit can undertake, and yet whatever we can already name—collaboratively and together—they are already available reference points for co-building an eco-social
world which we will live in in a shared future.”

4. The organizational mantra that serves as value orientation for the work of CoNGO says “Defining the present, shaping the future.” And as we launch into our 75th year anniversary next year, we have added the additional call, “Making the change, now”. This addition impresses upon us the urgency of now. Defining the present and shaping the future is all very well but making the change now is what matters to people and the planet.

5. I would like to share some thoughts on the general topic which is the theme of this People’s Global Summit—and that is “Co-building an eco-social world so that no one is left behind. Allow me to approach my contribution to elaborating on this theme around four subheadings:

a. First, the surplus of fear and deficit of hope in our world today.

b. Second, the need to revisit multilateralism as an arrangement of global collaboration and delivery mechanism for achieving global public goods and goals.

c. Third, the need for a robust, protected and transnational civil society that is co-constitutive with a robust multilateralism.

d. Fourth, what makes for an eco-social world that is worth building together so that no one is left behind?

The Surplus of Fear and the Deficit of Hope

6. On with the first—that there is in our world today a surplus, surfeit if you will, of fear and a deficit of hope which is imperiling the achievement of sustainable development goals for people and the planet. Co-building an eco-social world depends largely on the empowerment of the voice and agency of peoples as they identify their concerns and craft their futures. This is why decreasing fear and replacing it with increased hope augurs well into assuring people of their dignity and human rights and of the planet’s sustainability.

7. Today, this surfeit of fear and deficit of hope among the world’s peoples is putting humanity’s survival at stake in an ever more imperiled and unsustainable natural ecology. The health of peoples and the planet is endangered by intersecting crises not the least brought about by the coronavirus pandemic, global violence, forced migration, economic crisis, climate crisis, racial injustice, and more. Time is of the essence. We must decrease fear and increase hope in that eco-social world we are building together.

8. To decrease fear, we must reaffirm the fundamental principle that human dignity and human rights are non-negotiables. That human dignity is inherent in every person—persons being rights holders—and that human rights are buffeted and increased because they are the indivisible and interdependent protections we give to human dignity. To decrease fear among peoples, the pantheon of human rights we struggle to build upon daily must be demonstrable as effective instruments to check impunity of government, indeed state, agents who otherwise may conduct themselves with impunity as to violate and sully people’s dignity without fear of being accountable and punished.

9. To increase hope, we must build a common future for all the inhabitants of the earth and their natural ecology by promoting and safeguarding the common public goods and services indispensable to life. We must increase hope through arrangements that truly put peoples and the planet at the center of both the local and global public imagination of policy and legislation. And we certainly need today a cadre of leaders from grassroots, local, national, regional and international arenas to provide leadership for the much needed catalytic strategies and action for transformative change in social and ecological relations.

Multilateralism: Revisiting, Revising, Transforming

10. Second, the need to revisit, revise and transform multilateralism as an arrangement of global collaboration among a multiplicity of varied players focused on addressing collaboratively the production and development of common public goods, not the least the development of visible, viable and durable peace and prosperity which underpin an eco-social world responsive to the needs of peoples and insures the viability of the planet.

11. Multilateralism as we know it today will no longer suffice for that catalytic and transformative change. It must be revisited, rebooted, rewired, even repopulated beyond its all too nation-state centeredness. Not only must there be multilateralism where institutions for norms and standards-setting work robustly, accountably and transparently, but more importantly, a multilateralism where the common, just and equal flourishing of peoples and the planet are at the heart of its work, and not the self-preservation of the state in ways hitherto buttressed by national security formulations.

12. The challenge to multilateralism today is not only that the problems of the world have exponentially multiplied compared to the imagination of those who forged the Peace of Westphalia in mid 17th century. That provenance of modern multilateralism bequeathed us with the notion and reality of sovereign nation-states who contracted treaties and entered into obligations between and among them foremost to protect territories and resources. All in the interest of national security—meaning the protection of the inanimate nation-state!

13. The urgent challenge to multilateralism today, it would seem, lies in the urgency for these sovereign nation states to recognize how each of their people and their natural ecology are tied to the survivability and sustainability of all others, and that acting together globally is simultaneously in their local and national interest. The international interest today must be equally a national interest because the international interest is the interest of nationals acting upon global threats and challenges that no single country can address better except collectively—under the aegis of entities like those that make the United Nations System.

14. Multilateralism works, but only if the intention to involve civil society moves from rhetoric to reality. By civil society here I mean its widest meaning—all the peoples of the world in their varied settings and configurations including as citizens, people on the move as well as stateless persons. Their political and national affinities matter to the nation state. But being simply human means they are at the mercy of the perils of intersecting social injustices and harsh ecological realities. Reality here means allotting time for them to speak and be heard in all and every venue. As NGOs (non-governmental organizations) and CSOs (civil society organizations), we claim that citizens and non-citizens alike are indispensable parts of the national, regional and international governance architecture who cannot be ignored in the pursuit of common and global agendas—just to evoke language that the UN Secretary General, Antonio Guterres, has used in his latest recommendations now in the hands of the member states and for the upcoming General Assembly to consider.

The Need for a Robust and Protected Transborder and Transnational Civil Society

15. Third, the recognition that need for a robust and protected civil society is co- constitutive of a robust multilateralism, both at the global and national levels. NGOs, CSOs and grassroots organizations are placed in a momentous occasion to advance social consciousness and organize to advance human rights principles everywhere in the public square. But in many places in the world today the voices of civil society are increasingly muzzled in a public square that is shrinking and a public discourse that is curtailed.

16. The latest report of CIVICUS—the eleventh edition of its State of Civil Society issued a few days ago is alarming. This CIVICUS report “shines a light on a time of immense upheaval and contestation: war, conflict, rising fuel and food prices, climate change…” even as it also reported on where it found hope—”in the many mobilisations for change around the world: the mass protests, campaigns, and people’s movements for justice, and the many grassroots initiatives defending rights and helping those most in need.” The CIVICUS report identified five key current trends of global significance:

a. Rising costs of fuel and food are spurring public anger and protests at economic mismanagement

b. Democracy is under assault but positive changes are still being won

c. Advances are being made in fighting social inequality despite attacks

d. Civil society is keeping up the pressure for climate action

e. Current crises are exposing the inadequacies of the international governance system

17. CoNGO, in its own public statements, echoes CIVICUS’s refrain of these issues. “CoNGO is concerned about the shrinking space for civil society. Freedom of assembly, opinion and expression are inherent rights of every human being, but an increasing number of countries restrict these rights, treating civil society as a threat, rather than as a partner working to achieve common goals. Some governments imprison civil society activists or use force to quell peaceful assemblies and demonstrations. They formally accept the recommendations of the United Nations while ignoring them in practice. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and relevant international conventions and covenants must be universally applied. The United Nations must ensure that NGOs have maximum access to United Nations bodies, to allow the fullest contributions of their competencies, expertise, energy and experience.”

18. It is about time that the UN and its member states are seized of the political will (of its peoples and citizens) to achieve the future we want and the world we need. Formulations of these are already being expressed multifariously by the peoples of the world in a variety of social forums, peoples assemblies and certainly peoples’ summits such as this. This global people’s summit and the charter that will come out of it should loudly and clearly state the high expectations of NGOs and civil society for the Heads of State and Government, assembled during the High Level Political Forum (July) and at the General Assembly (September)—to demonstrate political courage by making real their declaration at the commemoration of the 75th anniversary of the UN, among them:

a. That “We will leave no one behind…The peoples have to be at the center of all our efforts.”

b. That “We will place women and girls at the center.”

c. That “We will upgrade the United Nations. The world of today is very different from what it was when the UN was created 75 years ago…Our working methods need to keep pace and adapt.”

19. Beyond the multilateralism we engage in today, we need arrangements that enable civil society to claim spaces and position themselves at political platforms where their presence is visible and their views are heard so as to impact decision making. At the level of NGOs that advocate before the United Nations under consultative arrangements, Article 71 of the UN Charter and ECOSOC Resolution 1996/31 already provide modalities and platforms that must be reinforced and not rolled back to the peril of democratic exchange and participatory decision making.

20. What matters to me as an NGO leader—as CoNGO President in particular—is that NGO representatives are able to speak their own voice, even in their own language, and claim their agency in the settings that presence the realities of their localities—be they grassroots, local, national, regional or global arenas. This includes the critical role of CSOs, critical social movements (CSMs) and other civic organizations vying for public attention and rallying for support for action on critical social, economic and political issues on the ground. The dynamic of co-building an eco-social world such as that propounded loudly by this people’s global summit points to the need to coalesce and forge alliances and networks so that we as peoples can multiply our collective power and potential to influence public opinion,
affect policy formulation, and effect transformative change.

21. CoNGO’s working modalities, especially its more than 30 substantive NGO committees organized in New York, Geneva, Vienna and in four other political regions exemplify the importance of harnessing collective energy and influence for impact, if not relevance. This organizational mode that gathers NGOs to work on substantive issues and act upon them to make the transformative change today demonstrates what I have called as the power of co—the power of consultation, collaboration and cooperation. The burden of this global people’s summit is not only to address the substantive issues that make an eco-social world. It matters equally and importantly that we employ methods of work that reflect the diversity of the transnational and transborder composition of who the world’s peoples are and the way they struggle, organize and mobilize themselves for action.

Making Human Security and Planetary Sustainability Matter, Together

22. Fourth and last of my subheadings is about an eco-social world we must co-build so that no one is left behind. That eco-social world is where food is secured as much as freedom is advanced, where jobs are secured as much as justice is advanced, and where land is secured as much as liberation is advanced. In its barest minimum, an eco-social world must secure for people:

a. Food and freedom,

b. Jobs and justice,

c. Land and liberation.

23. This formulation adheres to the indivisibility of social, economic, cultural, civil and political rights. Easier said than done. Especially because these are both human rights and human needs receiving the least of the resources that national budgets provide. But nothing to complicate what the world’s peoples want and need. People need food, shelter, clothing, education, health and so much more in ways already enumerated by the goals and targets under each of the 17 SDGs. And if these needs were not made available and their human rights to them are not protected, people must have venues to air their grievances so that they can act on their marginalization, oppression and exploitation and in the end feel their liberation.

24. In the age of what is called the Anthropocene, we need to assert the integrity of the ecological system—and as responsible human beings fight for the right of nature to be integrally sustainable. And do this as robustly as we fight for human rights. The anthropocentrism of how our human rights principles have developed must come to terms with the planetary requirements of human survivability. In the age of the Anthropocene we have tinkered so much with nature that nature’s own ability to regenerate has been breached and its integrity imperiled unless human intervention is curved and put in check. And those who have contributed the most to its peril have the greater responsibility—morally and resource-wise—to address such matters, not the least that of climate change.

What Needs to be Done?
25. In its previous statement, CoNGO has called upon the United Nations and Member States “to enter into a dialogue with civil society to create innovative partnerships that respond to the challenges of a changing world. The spirit of Agenda 2030 requires the robust participation of the peoples of the world so that the benefits of multilateralism are felt in their daily lives. Everyone must work in concert so that the United Nations we need for the world we want prospers in a rules-based international order. We call upon Member States to recognize the vast potential of civil society as an essential element of the international system, defining the present and shaping the future. We must dismantle the hurdles to physical and political access to United Nations processes, to achieve internationally agreed development
goals and social justice agendas….Humanity cannot wait.”

26. “The ‘Peoples’ who gave voice to the United Nations Charter and who see the Member States as their representatives are demanding that the world body rise to its commitments and bring about transformative change. Peace, justice and development depend on holistic, human-rights based, people-centred and gender-sensitive approaches to the systems underpinning our economy, society and

27. “We must increase momentum to transform the world and ensure that no one is left behind.” This means addressing those issues or concerns that worry “We the peoples.” These are concerns invariably and clearly identified or alluded to in the draft and hopefully final People’s Charter coming out of this Summit, issues such as:

a. Climate Change: issues around global warming, its effects on the relations of people and planet, sustainability and viability of civilizational life itself.

b. Global Migration and massive displacement and movement of peoples: realizing that migration today is globalized but xenophobically nationalistic, securitized and militarized, ethnicized and othered, gendered and sexualized, commodified and commoditized, homogenized and hegemonized.

c. Global Violence: recognizing that the world’s peoples are not only wary and weary but frustrated and dying in this warring world, arming to the teeth, militarizing not only our borders but our social relations, putting people and planet encircled and occupied, endangered and in many different manners in death’s way. The aggression by Russia against Ukraine is but one of many wars of aggression and occupation that colonizers and imperial powers have fomented and subjected other peoples and lands over the course of centuries. Ending the scourge of war still is a blight in the multilateral undertaking.

28. We are a human species in deep need today of the things that flourish life and undergird abundant living. Even more urgently, we need things that extinguish the power of death and death-dealing forces and instruments that peddle violence. Ending the scourge of war, and the proliferation of implements of war, is urgent and necessary even as it is also the greatest failure of the multilateral undertaking.

And what can we do, to make the change, now?

29. What can we do, what must we do, to make visible the change we want and need, and now? Can we redo civics education so that it is relevant today? How about glocal civics education that engenders glocal citizenship? What would it entail to ratchet up the co-building of an eco-social world where no one is left behind? Let me suggest three areas that reimagine and transform civics:

a. Cultivate CIVIC VALUES, where obligations generated by the multiplicity of relations between and among peoples and nations go beyond traditional notions of national security and sovereignty, into ones that foster people’s security, human rights and global peace. Here we have to start fortifying our calls and acts for food security, water security, climate security, and the like.

b. (En)gender CIVIC ENGAGEMENT, where citizenry goes beyond national allegiances and sovereign assertions. In a global world and cosmological existence, we need global citizenry and human solidarity where human welfare and cosmological wellbeing are primordial over activities that sever our human relations and deal death rather than life—activities such as wars and extractive mining that generate other death-dealing activities and natural catastrophes and human-induced vulnerabilities, including climate change,
and contemporary manifestations of the historic evils of slavery, colonialism and racism.

c. Foster CIVIC ACTION, which is oriented towards social justice, so that every activity—from grassroots, local, national, regional, to international—by peoples, governments and multilateral institutions—redound to the improvement of the relations of peoples and nations, thus providing the possibility of (re)constituting ourselves—our relationships, associations, and communities—and readying all for catalytic leadership and transformative change.

30. Let me circle back to my initial statement that in our world today there is a surplus of fear and a deficit of hope. And the urgency to reverse this is acute and necessary. In his famous “I Have a Dream” speech of August 23, 1963, at the Lincoln memorial on the Washington, DC National Mall, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., exclaimed:

“We are now faced with the fact that tomorrow is today. We are confronted with the fierce urgency of now. In this unfolding conundrum of life and history, there “is” such a thing as being too late. This is no time for apathy or complacency. This is a time for vigorous and positive action.”

31. That fierce urgency spoken of by Dr. King is a moment for us to seize—because the future is upon us now. The future is today. And vigorous and positive action is expected of us. That us is everyone. Each one of us has a stake in that future which is now. Time is of the essence. At such a time and space as ours, we must act—with determined voice and empowered agency. In a propitious time, and in a space where we have the capacity to act vigorously and positively, we must act collaboratively for the sufficiency and sustainability of the planet, and for peace and prosperity for all peoples.

32. On this day, the fierce urgency of now admonishes us to recognize the things that make for peace and brings justice so that we not only recover better for a sustainable and equitable world but recover justly and peaceably. And safely, for people and the planet. The human rights of peoples and the ecological health of the planet are at stake. And there is no time for delay. Because the future is now, we must make the change now.

Just peace, now.
Climate justice, now.
Health justice, now.
Vaccine justice, now.
Racial justice, now.
Economic justice, now.
Gender justice, now.
Migration justice, now.

33. The future of humanity is intertwined with the future of the planet. Now is time to demand that we look at both the pillage that social pandemics have visited upon us and address the lingering social, economic, political and cultural inequalities that trouble our peoples and lands. Now is time to be kind to one another—in or out of pandemics. Kindness is hard currency when fear is in surfeit and hope is in deficit.Let us make kindness available in all the ways we can as much as we can. Kindness is co-constitutive with solidarity. Kindness demonstrates our interdependencies in life and living, as one humanity in one planet.

34. Collaboration at all levels is needed if we are to triumph over crises across locales worldwide. Greater humility is required knowing that collaborative thinking and working far outweigh individual proclivities and comforts we have individually valued. In the time of the CoVID-19 pandemic, and the like, we must wash our hands, and wash them frequently and vigorously for our health and that of others.

35. But that is not the same case with social pandemics and injustices. We must not wash our hands as to diminish our complicity and entanglement with the injustices and unpeace that have sullied our human relations and endangered our planetary existence. Hope may be what holds life from death, peace from destruction. Let us recommit ourselves to an eco-social world that is just. Justice and just reparations
of our relations with each other and with the planet is doable now, in forms that are about mercy and compassion. Kindness is truly next to godliness. Let us be kind even as we limp our way to recovering better, justly and peaceably, towards a sustainable and equitable eco-social world.

Lisbon, Portugal
30 June 2022

Food Security, Food Sovereignty: An Insurance Policy for Inclusive and Resilient Recovery for Future Generations

Food Security, Food Sovereignty: An Insurance Policy for Inclusive and Resilient Recovery for Future Generations

Presentation by Liberato C. Bautista, President of CoNGO (Conference of NGOs in Consultative Relationship with the United Nations and Main Representative to the UN of The United Methodist Church-General Board of Church and Society), at the IFSW Virtual Parallel Event “Social Workers on the Frontlines of Inclusive and Resilient Recovery” convened by the International Federation of Social Workers (IFSW)on the occasion of the 60th Session of the United Nations Commission on Social Development.

16 February 2022 | New York | Virtual

1. Good morning NGO colleagues, ladies and gentlemen. Thank you Dean Elaine Congress and IFSW for having me in this panel on a topic so crucial and urgent. I am especially delighted to say that IFSW has recently been elected to the global Board of CoNGO.

2. Today, there is a surplus of fear and a deficit of hope among the world’s peoples. I have spoken about fear and hope many times, including my New Year’s message to the CoNGO constituency last year, 2021, because the future of people and our planet is at stake. That future is imperiled. People and the planet are imperiled. I thank the International Federation of Social Workers
here in New York for organizing this timely side event focused on inclusive and resilient recovery.

3. The concept for this event is well put. “Social workers play a global role in addressing issues that impact the well-being and dignity of populations through providing services, collaborating with communities and partners to strengthen social solidarity through advocating for just and equitable policies and centering the voices and leadership of the most marginalized, especially
indigenous people.”

4. The event’s focus on the promotion of inclusive and resilient recovery from COVID-19 for sustainable livelihoods, well-being, and dignity for all to eradicate poverty and hunger and achieve the 2030 Agenda is not only urgent but foundational. The advocacy here for vaccine equity, local capacity-building through transformative social protection systems, the right to development that includes socially just international trade agreements that advance human rights, and the promotion of the concept and practice of food sovereignty, is foundational to what makes for resilience and inclusion in

5. The survival of humanity is at stake in an ever more imperiled and unsustainable natural ecology. The health of peoples and the planet is endangered by intersecting crises not the least brought about by the coronavirus pandemic, global violence, forced migration, climate crisis, racial injustice, and more.

6. To decrease fear, we must affirm the fundamental principle that human dignity and human rights are non-negotiables. To increase hope, we must build a common future for all the inhabitants of the earth and their natural ecology by promoting and safeguarding the common public goods and services indispensable for life.

7. At face value, you may think that decreasing fear and increasing hope are fundamental tasks of nation-states. That the task of ensuring the rights of citizens and the integrity of the territory that bind them into one nation is what sovereignty means. It is, and that task by nation states of protecting sovereignty is fundamental. But my focus today is about another sovereignty—food sovereignty. How is this food sovereignty the same as our traditional notions of national sovereignty? How is it different from what the original proponents of the notion of food sovereignty?

8. I would like to locate the notion and practice of food sovereignty in the context of its urgency. That urgency is mediated by fear as much as by hope. By fear because the survival of peoples and the planet are at stake. By hope because the notion and practice of food sovereignty is forcing us to reimagine sovereignty beyond nation-state constructs into constructs that are people-centered, human rights-based, and planetary in orientation.

9. Recovery from the intersecting pandemics that people and the planet face today must not only be inclusive of and resilient for people and the planet but also just. Justice must be at the heart of recovery. After all, we are recovering from past historic injustices including slavery, colonialism and racism that have marginalized peoples, plundered their lands and resources, and subverted their human dignity and their communities, especially indigenous communities. It is when inclusion, resilience and justice come together that we are moving away from the prevalence of fear into the resurgence of hope.

10. Justice is what rights the wrongs that pandemics are made of. When justice is pursued, resilience goes beyond the human capacity to adapt. When people who have undergone injustices in their lives for centuries in time and generations in their families and communities and undertake endeavors to unyoke themselves from such injustices, I refuse to simply call that recovery. Nay, it is transformation in its most fundamental, if revolutionary, sense. We must not consign resilience to resignation as if we will weather every climate and economic crisis without structural and systemic changes. Nay, resilience must be about the uprooting of the intersecting pandemics and injustices that mire people and planet to hunger and poverty.

11. The impoverization that have resulted from ignominious acts of injustice in human history has plunged our planet into the precipice of unsustainability and the resulting dehumanization and commodification of people and populations everywhere. The concerns this side event is trying to address—vaccine equity, transformative social protection systems, socially just international trade agreements—are an array most commendable because on this call are people, you and me, who have the capacity to summon and mobilize both material and moral resources to undo the entanglements of public policy with such injustices that allow for poverty and hunger and for wars and violence to linger longer. And if this happens, our yearnings for a successful implementation of the SDGs will have come to naught.

12. We must increase hope and decrease fear through arrangements that truly put peoples and the planet at the center of both the local and global public imagination and public policy action. We certainly need global leadership that will help identify catalytic action and strategies for transformative change. Social workers are a well and wealth of that transformative leadership. Multilateralism and sovereignty as we know it today will no longer suffice for that catalytic and transformative change.

13. This year’s CSocD60 is even more crucial if only because it must address what civil society is clamoring for. Not only must there be multilateralism, where institutions for norms and standards-setting work robustly, but more importantly, a multilateralism where the common, just and equal flourishing of peoples and the planet are at the heart of its work.

14. Under the leadership of the NGO Committee on Social Development, civil society leaders around the world are gathering in solidarity to “end discrimination and invest in human dignity and well-being; to end hunger by building resilience for food security everywhere; to invest in decent and sustainable jobs; and to bridge the digital divide to access fundamental rights.” These demands are at the core of sovereign state duties and NGOs must call governments to their responsibility as duty bearers. What the original proponents of food sovereignty has taught us is that NGOs are truly the rights holders and as such, they have a fundamental role in defining what makes them secure. Food sovereignty is about food security.

15. The challenge to multilateralism today is not only that the problems of the world have exponentially multiplied over as imagined since the Peace ofWestphalia in the early 17th century that bequeath us with the notion of sovereignty and sovereign nation-states who have the ability to contract treaties between and among them. The true challenge to multilateralism lies in the urgency that these sovereign nation states recognize how each of their people and their natural ecology is tied to the survivability and sustainability of all others and that acting together globally is in their local and national interest.

16. Food sovereignty is truly about crossing boundaries worldwide—crossing sovereign territorial demarcations—ensuring that the wherewithal to address hunger are not hampered by political brinkmanship and exacerbated by the uneven economic development of nations. The faster we enact socially just international trade agreements the better we will have food on every table, not the least in the mouths of children whose nourishment ensures the flourishing of the future. Food sovereignty is an insurance policy for the future generations.

17. Food sovereignty is close to my heart. My parents were small farmers and rural agriculturists in northern Philippines. My father was a high school and vocational school graduate and my mother only finished fifth grade. Their meager income from tilling the land always made them insecure—not knowing how long the harvest will last so that there is food on the table and so that they can put their children to school. Food security and education—they thought—were the ways to increase hope and decrease fear.

18. What is food sovereignty? First, its origins. Let’s listen from the international peasants’ movement called La Via Campesina which is credited for originating the concept. In a Guide to Food Sovereignty they produced, it said, “Food Sovereignty has emerged from peasant organizations organized at the transnational level as a proposal for humanity to rethink how we organize food and agricultural production, distribution and trade, how we make use of land and aquatic resources and how we interact, exchange and organise with one another.

19. Food Sovereignty is not a simple set of technical solutions or a formula which can be applied – it is instead a “process in action” – an invitation to citizens to exercise our capacity to organize ourselves and improve our conditions and societies together. The concept of Food Sovereignty was developed by the people most threatened by the processes of the consolidation of power in food and agricultural systems,– peasant farmers. Instead of being destroyed by the forces of history they are offering a proposal to solve the multiple crises which humanity is facing.”

20. Food sovereignty, we could now say, is a lynchpin to just, inclusive, resilient and transformative recovery.
a. “Food is a fundamental need – access to food is essential to human survival and a basic human right.”
b. “Food is also political – the production of, access to and distribution of food are essential for our society to function and control of our food system confers power.”
c. “Trade in foodstuffs – the exchange and transport of food from one human population to another – is also a highly politicized and
complex process. Control of the rules and regulations governing international and interregional trade confers even greater power
and leverage.”
d. “In spite of the political and economic pressures they face, human beings continue to manage and nurture the ecosystems around
them to ensure a food supply. For thousands of years peasant farmers, pastoralists and other peoples who live from the land and sea have developed and refined resilient food and water systems, plant and animal breeds and cultivated plant varieties to ensure their continuation and long term sustainability.

21. Today, the notion and practice of food sovereignty provides a powerful method of work and a way of being, becoming and belonging that are at once local and global, at once transnational and transborder. We need leadership today whose focus and locus recognize the geopolitical nuances of location  and orientation. We need glocal leadership whose consciousness and practice are developed and nurtured through transborder and transnational organizing and mobilizing.

22. We also need leadership whose practice—indeed advocacies and activism—is rooted on the ground as much as oriented to the larger horizon of both human and planetary flourishing. Social workers, it seems to me, have true potential to be transborder and transnational agents on a mission to realize a just, transformative, and inclusive recovery from the social, economic, and cultural pandemics that people and the planet wrestle with today.

23. In my former office as human rights staff for the National Council of Churches in the Philippines hang a poster produced by the Peace and Justice Center in Marin, California. The text on the poster said these words that continue to influence my thinking and doing: “At the table of peace, shall be bread and justice”. Food invokes images of a table around which we break bread together; around which we tell stories of lives and living; around which families forge solidarity; around which peace talks are held. Food sovereignty is ultimately about what makes for peace—food on the table for everyone, irrespective of political and economic ideologies and systems of governance.

24. Around a table where we share food, we can discuss those that create fear and diminish hope today: a) climate change and global warming that is  changing the way people and planet relate to each other—affecting the sustainability and viability of civilizational and planetary life, b) forced migration in which the world is ever more globalized yet also xenophobically nationalistic; ever more securitized and militarized, anathemized and  criminalized, ethnicized and othered, gendered and sexualized; human beings—their bodies commodified and their services commoditized; and worse is racism and racial discrimination that would rather homogenize our ethnicities and play our sexes, classes, and religions against each other.

25. And this is why food sovereignty is crucial because many wars and imperial conquests were launched in search for food that eventually became the foothold of hegemonic pursuits. Food sovereignty is a way to decouple hegemonic sovereignty from the true sovereigns—peoples, indeed “we the peoples”. Many wars have been fought and violence inflicted on peoples and the planet in the guise of searching for spices and securing food and commercial routes—be they in the high seas or sky ways.

26. At the table of peace shall be bread and justice. That is my wish. The struggle to make this wish come true is what I see when I read about the work of this transnational agrarian movement called La Via Campesina whose story I want to end this presentation. I want to give Via Campesina the privileged  narrative—for theirs is the true work for food sovereignty: I will read from the article, “From Food Sovereignty to Peasants’ Rights: an Overview of La Via  Campesina’s Rights-Based Claims over the Last 20 Years”—originally a paper presented at an international conference on food sovereignty at Yale University in 2013.  “La Via Campesina developed in the early 1990s as peasant and small-scale farmers from Central America, North and South  America, Europe and elsewhere, sought to articulate a common  response to the neoliberal onslaught that had devastated their lives (Desmarais 2008; Borras 2004). Since then, the movement has opposed “global depeasantization” (Araghi 1995) and the emerging “corporate food regime” (McMichael 2009). It has developed a “food sovereignty” model to counterpose the dominant “market  economy” paradigm (Rosset and Martinez 2010, 154) and has managed to build a common agenda across the North-South divide. To do this, La Via Campesina has deployed a po werful “rights  master frame” (R. D. Benford and Snow 2000, 619). Rights occupy  a central place in most Via Campesina statements, whether in local struggles over seeds, land, territories and resources, or in international struggles over trade and investment in food and agriculture. Rights have provided a common language to peasants and small-scale farmers organizations that are politically, culturally and ideologically radically different. The concept of food sovereignty itself is often defined as “rights-based” (Patel 2007; Houtzager 2005; Rosset and Martinez 2010; Borras 2008). In this paper, I argue that food sovereignty has been claimed by La Via Campesina as a collective right (Claeys 2012, 852), and that it could in the future, become a new human right.”

27. Given another round, beyond food sovereignty and food security would have been other issues—certainly of food and freedom, of jobs and justice, of land and liberation—that make for recovery just and lasting, inclusive and transformative. Thank you social workers. Thank you IFSW New York. As CoNGO president, I feel proud that IFSW is a CoNGO full member, and serves on the CoNGO board, sharing in leadership so that NGO voice is heard and agency empowered at multilateral halls, and on issues such as what this event has highlighted.

New York City

16 February 2022



Toward a just, inclusive, and peaceable digital society: promises and perils, ethical and moral considerations

Presentation by Liberato C. Bautista, President of CoNGO, at the WSIS Forum 2022 Special Track on “Opening of the ICTs for Industry 4.0 and Emerging Digital Technologies for Sustainable Development”


11 April 2022 | Geneva, Switzerland | Hybrid

Toward a just, inclusive, and peaceable digital society: promises and perils, ethical and moral considerations

Excellencies, esteemed UN officials, NGO colleagues, ladies and gentlemen:

Thank you Ms. Sah for inviting me to this panel in my capacity as the President of CoNGO—the Conference of NGOs in Consultative Relationship with the United Nations. The collaboration between WSIS and CoNGO is alive, I want to claim from the outset.

Please allow me to respond to the two questions you asked me to address from the vantage point of a civil society and faith-based NGO leader and as social ethicist. You asked me about what concerns come to mind when today we discuss the matter about emerging digital technologies, especially in relation to sustainable development? 

You also asked me about specific moral and ethical concerns important to consider when talking about emerging digital technologies. On this point, I will focus on WSIS Action Line 10, which is about the ethical dimensions of the Information Society, dealing with the common good, with ethics, with human rights, the prevention of the abusive uses of ICTs and shared values.

Given five minutes to respond, let me attempt a few responses. 

In 2009, during my first term as President of the Conference of NGOs, we entered into a memorandum of agreement with the ITU Director General, for CoNGO to be a  civil society focal point for the WSIS Forum. From the WSIS Summits in Geneva (2003) and Tunis (2005), CoNGO has taken a lead role in organizing civil society presence unprecedented in many ways at a major UN conference. 

The CoNGO President during the WSIS Summits, Renate Bloem, later reflected about her experience in the summits, and her comments then remain our assessment even today. Ms. Bloem recounted that  “the substantial and procedural nature of WSIS have been a major step forward in building a new model for global governance and a constructive way of engaging civil society into the process.” 

Looking back, Ms. Bloem reflected that  “WSIS was a successful test of the capacity of the multilateral system to find alternative and innovative ways to integrate a wider range of actors, including NGOs, academic institutions and local authorities, in a long-standing political process. The stronger involvement of civil society was therefore a very relevant factor in dealing more adequately with the specific challenges raised by the Information Society.” 

Almost 20 years later, civil society participation in the WSIS process remains crucial. CoNGO Presidents Ms. Bloem, Mr. Cyril Ritchie, or I, have spoken annually at these Forums with the message that civil society voice is crucial in elaborating for what makes, among other values, a just, inclusive, solidarious, participatory and sustainable, information society. 

“Competent and responsible civil society input enhances coherent and implementable governmental output”. We remain committed to this enterprise every time we as NGO representatives claim a place at the table, just like this WSIS Forum and this panel.

On the second question, I would like to say that the digitization of knowledge and the digitalization of information—in all its applications, but especially in industry and commerce, are fraught with moral and ethical considerations. These moral and ethical considerations point to digital divide and inequalities already raised earlier, including their intersections with larger economic, political, social and cultural divides.

These moral and ethical considerations are even more crucial as we deal with digital communications technology like the “Internet of Things” (IoT), cloud computing, artificial intelligence, machine learning, digital twin, and the like. 

Knowledge is indeed power. We must therefore strive for an information society—including its technologies—so that knowledge is produced and shared justly, equitably, and peaceably. If the magnetic pull of the moral compass were to point to the common good, are these communications and information technologies close to being common good, indeed common public goods? 

Because communication is intrinsic to our humanity and the relations we build, the right to communication and access to it are “basic human rights, essential to human dignity and to a just and democratic society.” Nothing in our pursuit of new technologies should derogate the dignity and human rights of peoples.

Building a future with technologies changing by the second and besieged by intersecting pandemics, including health, economic and social pandemics, is fraught with both promise and peril. It could spell the leaving behind of many that would then frustrate the achievement of the SDGs.

Alarm is already sounded in places where analogue services are going to be cut in favor of digitalized streaming even as more than three billion people coming from developing countries remain dependent on radio for their information source.

Two NGOs that I represent at the UN—CoNGO and United Methodist Church-General Board of Church and Society—has invariably asserted in their advocacy work that a strong moral compass is needed to direct digital communication and technology to the ethical true north whose elements must contitute respect for peace and the upholding of the fundamental values of freedom, equality, solidarity, tolerance, shared responsibility, and respect for nature and its sustainability.  

These are values of moral significance in the crafting of normative multilateral  frameworks. At the core of these ethical values are the voice and agency of human beings who must be conscious rather than passive producers and consumers of digitalized knowledge and information.

Crucial to the principle of access to and stewardship of information communications technology is the recognition that vulnerable and marginalized peoples, especially migrants, indigenous peoples, internally displaced peoples, older persons, people with disabilities, and refugees will have varying difficulties accessing such digital technologies. 

For indigenous peoples, two concerns about digitization of indigenous knowledge and the digitalization of information they have produced have to do with whether the principle of free, prior and informed consent has been recognized or not, and whether indigenlous peoples will the technology to access back what is digitally stored. 

Nothing in the storing of knowledge and information should alienate these from their owners and producers. Speaking of perils, digital technologies must refuse to be the purveyor of the evil of systemic racism, xenophobia and racial discrimination. Digitalization must be the handmaiden of transborder solidarity and global citizenship. These and more are concerns related to the achievement of what is called digital justice which also includes free and equitable access by people to information communication technologies, respect for privacy, freedom from being manipulated, misinformed, and from undue appropriation of people’s information by digital media.

The Digital Society we ought to foster must be peaceable and secure—for the people and the planet. This is in keeping with a global ethic already inscribed in Agenda 2030, and the 17 SDGs. We must ensure that technologies of digitization and digitalization do not diminish but rather enhance and flourish human,  social and planetary connections. 

Thank you for your kind attention.


The Rev. Dr. Liberato C. Bautista is President of CoNGO–the Conference of NGOs in Consultative Relationship with the United Nations and represents the United Methodist Church–General Board of Church and Society at the United Nations.

Statement by Liberato C. Bautista President of the Conference of Non-Governmental Organizations in Consultative Relationship with the United Nations (CoNGO) at the joint meeting of ECOSOC with the Chairs of its Functional Commissions and Expert Bodies

Educate to Increase Hope and Decrease Fear in a Time of Intersecting Pandemics Joint Statement on the International Day of Education

Education is a human right, essential to well-being and dignity, and is key to achieving the United Nations Agenda 2030. Further, an ethos of global citizenship is required in order to fulfil this bold, people-centered, universal, and planet-sensitive development framework. (Gyeongju Action Plan).

CoNGO President’s New Year Message, 2021

IPPNW, PEAC Institute and CoNGO welcome 50 states ratifications and imminent entry into legal force of the UN Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons

16 November 2020

Always immoral, now a new treaty bans nuclear weapons

On October 24, 2020, exactly 75 years to the day the United Nations opened for business, Honduras became the 50th member state to ratify the UN Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW). By crossing the 50 ratifications threshold, this means that in 90 days, on 22 January 2021, the treaty will enter into legal force and become international law, binding on the states that have already ratified it, and all those which subsequently ratify the treaty.

Outlawing these genocidal weapons, which International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW) and Peace, Education, Art, Communication (PEAC) Institute have been working for as partner organizations in the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN)—now joined by the Conference of Non-Governmental Organizations in Consultative Relationship with the United Nations (CoNGO) in this statement, representing the will of nongovernmental and humanitarian organizations worldwide, is an essential step toward the prevention of nuclear war. The TPNW’s entry into force is an enormous win for planetary health.

The growing danger

The treaty is especially needed in the face of the real and present danger of nuclear war climbing higher than ever. All nine nuclear-armed states are modernizing their arsenals with new, smaller, and more accurate weapons; and some of their leaders are making irresponsible explicit nuclear threats. The cold war is resurgent—hard won treaties reducing nuclear weapons numbers and types are being trashed, while nothing is being negotiated to replace them, let alone build on them. We expect that the incoming Joe Biden administration, in cooperation with the administration of Vladimir Putin, will not allow the New START Treaty to expire before 5 February 2021, narrowly averting a situation where, for the first time since 1972, there would have been no treaty constraints on Russian and US nuclear weapons. This close call demonstrates the risky environment we have entered.  Armed conflicts which could trigger nuclear escalation are increasing in a climate-stressed world.  Armed conflicts which could trigger nuclear escalation are increasing in a climate-stressed world. The rapidly evolving threat of cyber-warfare puts nuclear command and control in jeopardy from both nations and terrorist groups. Close to two thousand nuclear weapons remain on hair-trigger alert, ready to be launched within minutes of a leader’s fateful decision.

The radioactive incineration unleashed by nuclear war involving even less than 1% of the global nuclear arsenal targeted on cities in one part of the world would be followed by a worldwide nuclear ice age and nuclear famine, putting billions of people in jeopardy.

As medical organizations including the World Health Organization, International Committee for the Red Cross, the World Medical Association, the World Federation of Public Health Associations, and the International Council of Nurses have confirmed, health and emergency services could not respond substantively to the needs of the victims of even a single nuclear weapon exploded on a city. When there is no cure, prevention is imperative.

Treaties work

A consistent lesson is provided by experience with biological and chemical weapons, antipersonnel landmines and cluster munitions. Treaties which have codified the rejection of an unacceptable weapon in international law have provided a crucial basis and motivation for the progressive work of eliminating these weapons. Providing one legal standard for all nations has been essential to the substantial progress made in controlling banned weapons. All the weapons subject to treaty prohibition are now less often justified, produced, traded, deployed and used. No indiscriminate and inhumane weapon has been controlled or eliminated without first being prohibited.

Nine nuclear-armed states, the 30 nuclear-dependent members of NATO, Australia, Japan and South Korea appear unlikely to soon join the TPNW. Yet they are already being affected by it, just as some of them have been influenced by the other treaties banning inhumane weapons, even if they opposed and haven’t joined them. Their hostility to the TPNW and shameful pressure on other states not to support or join it show that the treaty matters, stigmatizes nuclear weapons and puts them on the wrong side of history. Already the world’s largest sovereign wealth fund, major banks and pension funds have divested from companies manufacturing nuclear weapons. Now that the treaty is entering into force, every responsible financial institution should do the same.

The TPNW fills a gap in international law that for far too long saw the most destructive weapon ever invented, the only weapon which poses an acute existential threat to all humanity and to the biosphere, as the only weapon of mass destruction not expressly prohibited under international law.

In a dark time, the TPNW shines a light on the most promising path to free the world from the risk of indiscriminate nuclear violence. Not only does the treaty provide a comprehensive and categorical prohibition of nuclear weapons, it also provides the only internationally agreed framework for all nations to fulfill their legal obligation to eliminate nuclear weapons.
Further the TPNW obliges nations which join to provide long neglected assistance for the victims of nuclear weapons use and testing, and to undertake feasible remediation of environments contaminated by nuclear weapons use and testing.
The NGO community—including humanitarian, development, peace and human rights organizations worldwide—calls on all states to add their signature and ratify the treaty as a matter of utmost urgency and to faithfully implement it. Time is not on our side. The TPNW provides our best hope against our worst weapons.

Liberato C. Bautista, President
Conference of Non-Governmental Organizations in
Consultative Relationship with the United Nations (CoNGO)

Rebecca Irby, President
Peace, Education, Art, Communication (PEAC) Institute

Michael Christ, Executive Director
International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW)


Presidential Statement on 2020 Nobel Peace Prize to UN World Food Programme

Liberato C. Bautista, CoNGO President

12 October 2020


On behalf of the Conference of Non-Governmental Organizations in Consultative Relationship with the United Nations (CoNGO), I congratulate the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) on its receiving the 2020 Nobel Peace Prize, in recognition both of its many years of action to alleviate hunger across the world and of its relief work during this time of pandemic.

The award to the WFP is a yes to food security and a no to “the use of hunger as a weapon of war and conflict.” In their announcement of the award, the Norwegian Nobel Committee stated: “The link between hunger and armed conflict is a vicious circle: war and conflict can cause food insecurity and hunger, just as hunger and food insecurity can cause latent conflicts to flare up and trigger the use of violence. We will never achieve the goal of zero hunger unless we also put an end to war and armed conflict.”

Funded by the voluntary contributions of UN Member States and of civil society worldwide, the World Food Programme is a shining example of cooperation between government on the one hand and civil society on the other. Much of its work is dependent on partnership with non-governmental organizations of the kind that the Conference of NGOs is proud to represent.

At this time of crisis, when many governments are struggling to feed their people, and in which the incidence of poverty is rising because of economic disruption, CoNGO calls on UN Member States to support the global work of the World Food Programme, on nongovernmental organizations to work increasingly together to redouble their efforts to achieve the same goals, and on people of goodwill everywhere to play their part both in supporting the World Food Programme and in urging their governments to do the same.

Presidential Statement on United Nations Charter Day 2020

Liberato C. Bautista, CoNGO President

26 June 2020


On June 26, 1945 a new dawn arose. On that day the United Nations Charter was signed in San Francisco, creating a successor to the League of Nations, and declaring unambiguously that the new United Nations Organization’s goals were, inter alia,

  • to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war,
  • to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained,
  • to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good

The UN Charter, from the outset, established the world organization to be at the apex of solutions to the major global challenges that are necessary conditions for building a peaceful world, including international economic and social cooperation to ensure social and economic progress for all on the basis of equal rights and self-determination of peoples. For the first time human rights was made into a central objective of a world organization.

The United Nations Charter created the prime multilateral international institution that would be the linchpin for a complex but indispensable system of interdependencies. Governments and peoples had learnt that the alternative to multilateralism—unilateralism and rote nationalism—had led the world to the disasters of two World Wars.

As civil society celebrates the values enshrined in the UN Charter—signed by governments on behalf of”We, the peoples”—and celebrates the values enshrined in the UN Charter, we cannot but ask: Why have wars between, among, and within nations so frequently recurred? Why are inequalities and uneven development between rich and poor increasing both at the international and national level? Why can the international financial institutions continue to practice policies that are at odds with the UN, while the Charter calls for the coordination of all specialized agencies? Why is unaccountable power of transnational corporations expanding? Why have the legacies of centuries of slavery, colonialism and racism not been repaired? Why have treaties and international law been so frequently neglected or undermined? Why has disarmament become a forgotten topic when the resources squandered on arms could well add needed resources to sustainable development for all?

Civil society salutes the aims and purposes of the United Nations as defined in the Charter and will continue, as it has done untiringly for 75 years, to work for their achievement. We plead and we demand that the governments of UN member states do no less: that they live up to their commitments and promises, and that they take their Charter commitments seriously and unremittingly. As it has done for 72 of those years, since its founding in 1948, the Conference of Non-Governmental Organizations in Consultative Relationship with the United Nations (CoNGO) pleads and demands that governments recognize that the civil society organizations in their countries and internationally are a powerful force working for the public good, acting selflessly to promote and expand those same causes for which the United Nations was established.

Article 71 of the UN Charter opened the door to non-governmental organizations, and over the years there have been innumerable beneficial interactions between the UN and NGOs—in all their operational and terminological diversity. The establishment of formal consultative  status  for NGOs with the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) was groundbreaking for the system of international relations. ECOSOC Resolution 1996/31  governs  the  establishment  of consultative status as well as that of accreditation of a broader group of civil society to United Nations conferences and consultations. It contains principles and modalities for regular NGO participation in designated United Nations bodies that has stood the test of time  and  enjoys  broad NGO support. It is in that context, and in furtherance of the UN Charter values, that CoNGO pleads and demands that governments take every opportunity to further incorporate into their deliberative and decision-making processes the competent voices of NGOs and all civil society. The encouragement and acceptance by governments of the input of the knowledge, competence, and experience of peoples and communities will in consequence enhance the output of governmental mechanisms, thus making treaties, conventions and other decisions more realistic and implementable. That would be wholly in line with the goals of the Charter.

It is time now to reaffirm the benefits, indeed the indispensability, of multilateralism. Renewed and reinvigorated multilateralism, especially in this year of the seventy-fifth anniversary of the UN, is fundamental to achieving two other of the UN Charter principles:

  • to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security
  • to employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advancement of all

The UN Charter principles are key to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, which encapsulate the fundamental purpose of having an effective and reliable United Nations Organization devoted to “the advancement of all peoples”, and to shaping a more just, participatory, peaceable and equitable world.

But for the United Nations System to be effective and reliable, it must be adequately resourced—in finance and personnel. CoNGO repeats its oft-expressed alarm over the negative effects of the continuous shrinking of the regular budget of the United Nations. Significantly more than in 1945,   a multitude of today’s world problems respect neither physical nor territorial boundaries. The unfinished agenda of decolonization and corollary issues related to self-determination cry out for attention

The United Nations System is more and more the world’s “plumber” not of last but of first resort, called into service to “stop the leaks” before a deluge (climate change, a pandemic, natural disasters, weapons of mass destruction, endemic poverty, global hunger, forced migration, gender violence and injustice, racism…) overwhelms our only planet. For this, we plead and demand that governments adopt this year a sufficiently increased UN regular budget, and over the long term a generous increase. And of course, that governments then pay their contributions fully and on time!

“Building Back Better” is not just a slogan for the post-COVID-19 recovery period (long as that may yet be), but a challenge to build better on the UN Charter. Even more urgent now is to build back beyond pandemic management and into addressing the roots of our global maladies by acting justly and peaceably, and ensuring that peoples and communities reap and enjoy equitably the benefits   of multilateral negotiations, foremost of which are agreements in the protection of human rights and ecological justice. And we must build back in such a way that neither war, nor poverty, nor systemic racism, are inevitable. The Charter is a tool and an opportunity. “We the peoples” plead and demand that governments work with us—in consultation, collaboration and cooperation—to save succeeding generations from the scourges of the twenty-first century.

New York City

For further information:
Liberato C. Bautista,

Intervention at the ECOSOC Presidency Briefing for Civil Society